PYROFLEX™ & GRAPHENE THERMAL STRAPS
X-Series® | The World’s Highest Performance Straps
Vibration transmission and waste heat removal requirements have dramatically changed as spacecraft, cubesats, larger satellites, and other aerospace equipment needs have evolved in recent years. Unfortunately, in certain applications, these requirements have effectively eliminated traditional metallic cable, foil, and graphite fiber straps as a solution. To meet these challenges, TAI offers our X-Series® PyroFlex™ product line; the world's highest thermal performance, "Zero-Stiffness" thermal straps.
- 3 – 4X the performance of equivalent copper and graphite fiber straps
- 10 – 30% greater thermal performance than competing carbon straps
- PyroFlex™ offers 6X the thermal performance of al & 4X the performance of cu at room temp
- PyroFlex™ and Graphene are both 28% lighter than aluminum, and 77% lighter than copper
- PyroFlex™ links are the industry’s most flexible thermal straps
- PyroFlex™ straps are exceptionally clean and passed strict PCL/PAC/FPAC testing
- PyroFlex™ DO NOT REQUIRE ENCAPSULATION SLEEVES
- X-Series® PyroFlex™ straps achieved NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 8
Pictured: X6-501 X-Series® with dual aluminum L-fittings.
CUSTOM PyroFlex™ STRAPS
Pictured: Custom PGL™ with dual flat aluminum fittings.
The World's Highest Thermal Performance
Specific Thermal Conductivity of Strap Materials
Thermal Conductivity of Strap Materials
Spaceflight Qualification & Current Programs
- Thermal Conductance
- Thermal Cycling
- Post-Thermal Cycling Thermal Conductance
- Post-Vibration Thermal Conductance
- Particulation Contamination Level (PCL)
- Post-Vibration PCL
Pictured: X6-501 NASA Stiffness Test (October 2018).
Pictured: Dual X6-501 NASA Vibration Test (November 2018).
X-Series® Program and Spaceflight Heritage
PyroFlex™ - The "Zero-Stiffness" Thermal Strap
Which Carbon-Based Thermal Strap is Right for Me?
TAI offers multiple carbon-based strap products because no single configuration or material is ideal under all operational and environmental conditions. Pictured (left to right): GraFlex I, GraFlex II, Graphene Foils, and Pyrolytic Graphite Film Straps from TAI.
Layered Graphene Foil and Micro-Cracking
While TAI has extensive experience designing and testing our layered graphene foil-based straps (and our PyroFlex™ & GTL™ products have been tested by NIST researchers), our team will only recommend a graphene foil solution under extremely limited applications and operating environments, due to issues with commercially-available layered graphene foil thermal links.
As our customers and colleagues at NASA, NIST, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), and the European Space Agency (ESA) have all noted and experienced firsthand (either with graphene foil thermal links/straps, or individual graphene foil sheets), one critical problem plagues all layered graphene foils and composite sheets: "micro-cracking" or stress fractures. These tiny cracks are caused by flexing/bending the strap assemblies (or sheets), and even occur with the minimal movements associated with minute levels of thermal expansion and contraction. These fractures can grow over time (in just a matter of a few cycles), and eventually lead to reduced performance, damaged foils, and compromised straps.
Additionally, tests performed by NIST researchers demonstrated that layered graphene foil-based thermal links experienced significant performance degradation after being thermally-cycled (just two additional cycles can result in conductance losses of >15% at 160K). As a result, TAI will not provide layered graphene foil thermal links to any application operating under 200K, and any application with a wide range of motion/deflection requirements.